Cell-based Assays: Understanding Sub-cellular Localization and Pathways
Contrary to biochemical assays that analyze the cell lysate, Cell based assays measure different parameters of fixed or living cells. Cell based assays can be used to determine the growth rate of a cell population and the pathways and how they interact within a cell. These assays are used in various stages of drug discovery and development, due to their flexibility, adaptability, and versatility. For example, Cell based assays are commonly utilized in spatiotemporal analysis to understand the modifications that are associated with proliferating cells. We, at NorthEast BioLab, use Cell based assay development for sub-cellular localization and drug discovery screening in pharmaceutical development.
Cell based assay development is utilized to analyze the cytotoxicity of a chemical compound or observe its toxic impact on the human body. Since biotherapeutics have several functional domains that can interact with different molecules to achieve optimum functioning, Cell based assays are favored during the development of biologics. For example, a protein may have a functioning domain which stimulates cell internalization or activates a transcription factor. This makes it necessary to test these domains and related functions of the drug compound before product release. In the final stages of the study, these functional domains may be tested on a living organism, animal, or human volunteer. Initially, however, the biological activity is tested through Cell based assays.
Cell-based Assays: From Drug Discovery and Preclinical to Clinical Phases
Cell based assays are extensively used in drug discovery and development, as this method provides feedback from experiments with living cells. These tests include various types of assays, some of which are already discussed above, such as toxicity assay, cell proliferation assay, motility assays, etc.
Cell based assays allow scientists to monitor cell behavior and achieve accurate quantitation of cellular pathways. Undoubtedly, the obtained insights from these experiments facilitate drug development across various phases such as discovery, preclinical, and clinical. Thus, Cell based assay development can be critical in quickly identifying potentially viable drug candidates while eliminating the need for multiple screening methods.
A few applications of Cell based assays in drug discovery and development are as under:
- Identifying antiviral and antimicrobial compounds
- Evaluating non-toxic and toxic drug substances
- Detecting viral contaminations harmful to the body
- Recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
- Screening pathogen recognition receptor antagonists and agonists
Cell based assays are used in measurements of various biological markers critical to drug discovery and development. At NorthEast BioLab, we implement Cell based assays using clinical and FDA-approved standards.