Granulate Colony Stimulation Factor (G-CSF)
Granulate Colony Stimulation Factor (G-CSF or GSCF) or Colony Stimulating Factor 3 (CSF 3) is a glycoprotein with distinct roles in the physiological and pathological condition. It stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells to release them into the bloodstream. G-CSF production typically indicates an endogenous presence of infection or tissue damage, stimulating the generation of G-CSF protein. Several cells can produce G-CSF, but the cognate receptor binding biomarker is principally induced by immune cells such as macrophages and endothelium. When searching for ‘what is Granulate Colony Stimulation Factor or G-CSF’, one might come across its aliases C17orf33 and CSF3OS.
G-CSF: Neutrophil Growth, Regulation, and Apoptosis
G-CSF promotes the maturation process of neutrophils through survival, proliferation, differentiation, etc. There are two natural forms of the human glycoprotein, 174 and 177- amino-acid-long protein of molecular weight 19,600 grams per mole. Below, we have listed the primary categories of G-CSF:
- lenograstim (Granocyte)
- filgrastim (Neupogen, Zarzio, Nivestim, Ratiograstim)
- long-acting (pegylated) filgrastim (pegfilgrastim, Neulasta) and pegfilgrastim (Lonquex)
long-acting (pegylated) filgrastim (pegfilgrastim, Neulasta) and pegfilgrastim (Lonquex)
Typically, G-CSF pharmaceutical products utilize the more active 174 amino acid form by recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. Furthermore, we have included the Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) mechanism on the following –
White Blood Cells
G-CSF receptor gets hosted in the precursor cells of the bone marrow. G-CSF growth factor binds to the G-CSF receptor on the surface of neutrophil progenitors in the bone marrow. It stimulates proliferation and differentiation into mature granulocytes. It is the primary regulator of the maturation, survival, and functions of neutrophils/granulocytes to activate and exert the biological defense mechanism.
G-CSF cytokine is a potent inducer of Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) mobilization from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. That said, the latest research refutes the direct effect of the protein on mobilized hematopoietic progenitors.
G-CSF can act as a neurotrophic factor on the neuronal cells as well. The neurons in the brain and the spinal cord express the G-CSF receptor. The critical functions of G-CSF in the central nervous system are to:
- Induce neurogenesis
- Increase neuroplasticity
- Counteract apoptosis
Several of these characteristics of the granulocyte colony stimulating factor are being actively researched to develop treatments for certain neurological diseases such as cerebral ischemia.