Granulate Colony Stimulation Factor (G-CSF)

Granulate Colony Stimulation Factor (G-CSF or GSCF) or Colony Stimulating Factor 3 (CSF 3) is a glycoprotein with distinct roles in the physiological and pathological condition. It stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells to release them into the bloodstream. G-CSF production typically indicates an endogenous presence of infection or tissue damage, stimulating the generation of G-CSF protein. Several cells can produce G-CSF, but the cognate receptor binding biomarker is principally induced by immune cells such as macrophages and endothelium. When searching for ‘what is Granulate Colony Stimulation Factor or G-CSF’, one might come across its aliases C17orf33 and CSF3OS.

G-CSF: Neutrophil Growth, Regulation, and Apoptosis

G-CSF promotes the maturation process of neutrophils through survival, proliferation, differentiation, etc. There are two natural forms of the human glycoprotein, 174 and 177- amino-acid-long protein of molecular weight 19,600 grams per mole. Below, we have listed the primary categories of G-CSF:

  • lenograstim (Granocyte)
  • filgrastim (Neupogen, Zarzio, Nivestim, Ratiograstim)
  • long-acting (pegylated) filgrastim (pegfilgrastim, Neulasta) and pegfilgrastim (Lonquex)

long-acting (pegylated) filgrastim (pegfilgrastim, Neulasta) and pegfilgrastim (Lonquex)

Typically, G-CSF pharmaceutical products utilize the more active 174 amino acid form by recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. Furthermore, we have included the Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) mechanism on the following –

White Blood Cells

G-CSF receptor gets hosted in the precursor cells of the bone marrow. G-CSF growth factor binds to the G-CSF receptor on the surface of neutrophil progenitors in the bone marrow. It stimulates proliferation and differentiation into mature granulocytes. It is the primary regulator of the maturation, survival, and functions of neutrophils/granulocytes to activate and exert the biological defense mechanism.

Hematopoietic System

G-CSF cytokine is a potent inducer of Hematopoietic Stem Cell (HSC) mobilization from the bone marrow into the bloodstream. That said, the latest research refutes the direct effect of the protein on mobilized hematopoietic progenitors.

Neurons

G-CSF can act as a neurotrophic factor on the neuronal cells as well. The neurons in the brain and the spinal cord express the G-CSF receptor. The critical functions of G-CSF in the central nervous system are to:

  • Induce neurogenesis
  • Increase neuroplasticity
  • Counteract apoptosis

Counteract apoptosis
Several of these characteristics of the granulocyte colony stimulating factor are being actively researched to develop treatments for certain neurological diseases such as cerebral ischemia.

G-CSF Assay: Established, Multi-species MSD, and Luminex Assay

At NorthEast Biolab, we are well-versed in the G-CSF cytokine analysis for basic and translational research towards various diseases.

G-CSF MSD Assay

MSD Assays, testing the G-CSF, utilize a carbon electrode plate surface for reagent binding and rely on electrochemiluminescence for ultra-sensitive antigen quantitation. We perform all our MSD G-CSF assays for consistent and high-integrity data.

Species: Homo Sapiens (Human)
Sample Volume: ~50 µL/well
LLOD (Sensitivity): 1.6 pg/mL
Dynamic Range: 1.6-20,400 pg/mL
Sample Type: Serum, Plasma, Cell Culture Supernatant

G-CSF Luminex Assay

Luminex Assays, testing the G-CSF, use internally color-coded microspheres. Each of these distinct magnetic beads coated with capture antibody bind relevant analyte in the test sample. Afterward, streptavidin-PE conjugate incubated on a biotinylated detection antibody helps quantitate GSCF levels. Thus, we identify each Luminex microsphere and determine results based on fluorescent reporter signals. Different colored beads allow the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes (multiplexing) in the same sample. Luminex assays utilize laser excitation to determine analyte concentration.

Species: Homo Sapiens (Human)
Sample Volume: ~50 µL/well
LLOD (Sensitivity): 3.7 pg/mL
Dynamic Range: 3.7-75,000 pg/mL
Sample Type: Serum, Plasma, Cell Culture Supernatant

G-CSF ELISA Assay

For a G-CSF ELISA Assay, a double-antibody sandwich method is used to test the colony in the human body. Usually, ELISA assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for the detection of G-CSF function.

In summary, our veteran team of scientists –

  • Assign a principal scientist to perform your GCSF assay from beginning to end.
  • Minimize any unjust influence on your assay by following our standard operating procedures in controlled lab conditions.
  • Regulate incubator/room temperature, air humidity, etc. as per these procedural requirements.

Drug Discovery and Development Process

How long do you think it takes for a new drug to get approved in the US? About 12-15 years, that’s roughly 1/3rd duration of the entire professional career for any of us. Next, how much investment do you think is required to bring a new drug to market?

Popular G-CSF Resources

Among other lifesaving applications, the post-chemotherapy recovery for cancer patients brings the G-CSF gene and antibody into play. The stimulation of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, helps reduce mortality from neutropenia. Along with this, the stem cell transplantations and pre-blood donation preparations employ the G-CSF growth factor. Here are a few popular resources on G-CSF ELISA, G-CSF structure, and G-CSF cytokine research papers URLs:

https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/cancer-in-general/treatment/cancer-drugs/drugs/g-csf
https://www.macmillan.org.uk/cancer-information-and-support/treatments-and-drugs/g-csf
https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/drugs/19431-filgrastim-g-csf-injection
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4741374/